Pulsatile Tinnitus

Pulsatile Tinnitus (“tinnitus”, from the Latin tinnier – ringing) is the phenomenon, described as the sound sensation that occurs in the head and is not associated with an external acoustic stimulus.
According to modern concepts, the pathogenesis of tinnitus is the theory of self hearing somatic sounds of a body from the existing pathological conditions and of auditory sensations.
Noise characteristics are varied:
• unilateral or bilateral,
• constant or intermittent,
• dull or throbbing,
• high-frequency and low-frequency
• intensive and ill-defined.
Patients often compare it with the noise of the surf, the rustle of leaves, the sound of steam, gurgling or splashing water, and mosquito peep.
Tinnitus can be a painful sensation and significantly reduce quality of life. Sometimes tinnitus causes of suicide attempts. To get rid of the painful noise, Dutch painter Van Gogh tried to cut off his ear.
Very rarely complain of tinnitus children and almost never – patients with congenital deafness.
Tinnitus is not a mandatory symptom of any diseases, but it is known that up to 85% of patients suffering from this condition have registered a hearing loss in the range of 250-8000 Hz.

The causes of tinnitus
Tinnitus can be caused by different reasons, and not always regarded as a pathological condition. There are endogenous somatic sounds that occur during muscle contraction, movement joints, and the bloodstream. Usually these sounds are masked by the sounds of the environment and do not lead to a pathological condition. In a healthy person in a soundproof room, may cause tinnitus – “the perception of silence” (Preyer, 1876).
However, in most cases – it’s a symptom of pathological conditions of the hearing organ, or other organs or systems.

The causes of tinnitus:
• mechanical and acoustic trauma, barotraumas, the impact of noise,
• intoxication, including drugs,
• system and infectious diseases);
• aural calculus or foreign body in the ear canal,
• abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint.
Noise in the ear pathology observed in 80% of cases, the central violations – 13%. It considers that the noise of central origin is more common, but because of low intensity rarely a cause for seeking medical attention and is detected only during purposeful questioning. In modern medical literature the classification based on the concepts of objective and subjective noise is used.

Objective tinnitus can be registered using auscultation and other instrumental methods of examination of the patient. Objective noise is characterized for those rare diseases in which there is noise audible for outside observer.

Subjective noise (it is often called “tinnitus”) occurs in the absence of a real source. Subjective tinnitus occurs in all patients who experience a sound, not measurable from the outside.
Long-lived subjective tinnitus is the result of the formation of pathological “vicious circle”, which is formed in the central and subcortical parts of brain due to incoordination of data center with no real source.

The concept of tinnitus combines violation of socialization, mental disorders, mood caused by noise in the ears. Five percent of the adult population of the world suffers from chronic tinnitus.

People cannot concentrate, cannot sleep, and become nervous and depressed. Tinnitus is non-stopping sounds in your ears. These sounds can be quite diverse. It is often observed as a partial deafness and hearing loss. In some cases, the noise is so loud that breaks all normal human life.

A number of diseases of the heart and blood vessels trigger pulsatile tinnitus.

1. Atherosclerosis. In this disease the internal surface of the vessel is covered with cholesterol build-up. In this connection the vascular walls become more rigid, not expanded if the bloods flow. Such a phenomenon leads to turbulent blood flow, that is, blood flow with a twist.

2. Hypertension. Any situation in which increased blood pressure, as well as food and beverages, may provoke the development of pulsatile tinnitus.

3. Turbulent motion of the blood. Reduction of the inner lumen of the carotid arteries and jugular veins washes causes turbulence circulation, in which there is noise in the ears.

4. Telangiosis. For example, arterio-venous shunts (and other disease), sometimes appear pulsating noise in a head.

5. Neoplasms of the head and neck. Pulsatile tinnitus often indicates the presence of a tumor.

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